Joints in the Water Supply Piping, Pipe Appurtenances

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Joints in the Water Supply Piping, Pipe Appurtenances

Joints in the Water Supply Piping, Pipe Appurtenances.
"Unlocking the Flow: Exploring Joints in Water Supply Piping, Pipe Appurtenances in Civil Engineering"

Welcome to our comprehensive exploration of one of civil engineering's fundamental yet often overlooked components: joints in water supply piping, pipe appurtenances, and distribution systems. As essential conduits for delivering life-sustaining water to communities, understanding the intricacies of these components is paramount for ensuring efficient and durable infrastructure.

In this insightful discussion, we delve into the significance of joints within water supply systems, uncovering their pivotal role in maintaining structural integrity, preventing leaks, and optimizing distribution efficiency. From traditional to innovative jointing techniques, we dissect the mechanics, benefits, and applications, shedding light on best practices and emerging trends reshaping the field.

Join us as we navigate through the complex network of water supply piping, examining the crucial synergy between joints, pipe appurtenances, and distribution strategies. Whether you're a seasoned practitioner seeking to deepen your expertise or an aspiring engineer eager to grasp the foundational principles, this exploration promises to illuminate key concepts, inspire innovation, and empower you to engineer resilient water infrastructure for generations to come.

Embark on this journey with us as we unlock the flow, empowering you to navigate the dynamic landscape of water supply engineering with confidence and expertise.

joints in the water supply piping

Pipes are connected with the help of joints.
Following are the important types of Joints in water mains.

1. Spigot and socket joints:

  • a) This joint is also called Bell and Spigot Joint.
  • b) The plain end of the pipe is known as the spigot end, and the expanded end is known as the bell or socket end.
  • c) First, the yarn of jute is wound around the spigot end, and a rubber gasket is placed tightly over the yarn.
  • d) The spigot end is now inserted into the bell end in such a way that it is properly set in position.
  • e) Then the gap is filled up with uniform lead by a suitable pouring device.
  • f) Mostly mains and sub-mains of cast iron or steel are joined with this type of joint.

2. collar joint:

  • Collar joint is recommended for Joining the RCC pipes and asbestos cement pipes.

3. expansion joints:

  • Expansion joints are provided in metal pipelines at suitable intervals to take into account the change in pipe length due to temperature variations.

4. flanged joints:

  • a) This type of joint is recommended for temporary work where the pipeline may be dismantled after work or maybe shifted.
  • b) Mostly used in cast iron pipes and steel pipes.
  • c) Joints are easy to repair and are strong
  • d) Not used where deflections or vibrations are expected.

5. flexible joints:

  • Flexible Joint is recommended for the places where the settlement of the pipeline may occur.

6. threaded joints:

  • a) These types of joints are recommended for connecting the G.l. pipes.
  • b) They are detachable joints which means when required, the joined machined parts can be dismantled without damaging any part.
  • c) Threads are the basic element of these joints. They can be nut and bolt or screw and stud etc

7. simplex joints:

  • a) Used for joining asbestos cement pipes.
  • b) This joint consists of a pipe sleeve and two rubber gaskets.

example 1:

The following steps are involved in making a spigot and socket joint of cast iron pipes used in water supply systems:
I) Tarred gasket or hemp yarn is wrapped around the spigot.

II) The spigot end is centred into the socket end of the preceding pipe.

III) A joining ring end is placed around the barrel and against the face of the socket.

IV) The gasket or hemp yarn is caulked slightly.

V) Molten pig lead is poured and then caulked.

The correct sequence of these steps is

(A) II, I, IV, III, V
(B) II, I, III, IV, V
(C) I, II, IV, V, III
(D) 1, II, III, V, IV

Solution: (C)

Important Notes

Quantity of lead required in the spigot and socket joint is about 3.5 to 4 kg for 150 mm dia. and 45 to 50 kg for 1200 mm dia.

pipe appurtenances

  • When pumps lift water and water are delivered through large diameter pipes to treatment plants and distribution points, for safety and proper functioning of the supply and to isolate and drain the pipe-line, the pipeline is divided into several sections.
  • This helps for testing, inspection, cleaning and repair.
  • The following shows a typical pipeline layout where the pipeline is passing through valleys and ridges.
  • At summit points, gate valves are provided with air valves.
  • Whereas at valley points, blow-off or drain valves are provided.
  • Valves used in waterworks may be listed as stop valves, non-return valves, flow control valves, pressure control valves, energy distribution valves, and air valves.
typical pipeline layout where pipeline passing through valley and ridges

typical pipeline layout where pipeline passing through valley and ridges

1. sluice valves:

  • a) Sluice valves are also known as gate valves or shut-off valves.
  • b) These valves are provided to regulate the flow of water through the pipe.
  • c) These valves are usually placed at the summits of the pressure conduits where the pressure is low.
  • d) These valves are also known as Gate

2. air valves / air relief valves:

  • a) Water flowing through the pipeline always carries some air with it.
  • b) This air tends to accumulate at the summit to release the air pressure.
  • c) At every summit of a pipeline and d/s of sluice valve an air valve is provided to exit the accumulated air.

3. Check valve or reflux valve or non-returning valve:

  • a) These pass some automatic device which allows the water to flow in one direction only.
  • b) This valve is provided in the pipeline, which draws water from the pump.
  • c) When the pump is operated, the valve is opened, when the pump is suddenly stopped, the valve is automatically closed, and the water is prevented from returning to the pump.

4. Relief valve or safety valve:

  • The relief valves are also known as pressure relief valves, or cut-off valves or safety valves.

5. Scour valve or blow off valve or drain valve:

  • a) Scour valves are known as washout valves.
  • b) These are similar to the sluice valves, but the function is different.
  • c) The function of this valve is to remove the sand, silt, etc., from the pipeline.
  • d) Scour valves are provided at the dead-end of the pipeline.

6. Foot valve:

  • a) It is used at the end of the pump suction pipe.
  • b) They prevent the entry of debris into the pumping system and backflow.

7. Butterfly valve:

  • Butterfly valves are used to regulate and stop the flow essentially in large size conduits.

8. Globe valves:

  • a) The flow changes direction through 90° twice, thus resulting in high head losses.
  • b) These valves are normally used in small bone pipework and as taps, although variations are used as a control valve.

9. Pilot valves:

  • a) It is a small valve that controls a limited flow, control feed to separate pilot valve.
  • b) Typically, this controls a high pressure or high flow feed.
  • c) Pilot valves are often used in critical applications and are human-operated.

10. Stop cock:

  • a) The stop cocks are practically sluice valves of small sizes.
  • b) These are approved on the pipeline leading to the washbasin, water tank, etc. to stop or open the flow of water when necessary.

example 2:

Match List 1 with List 2 and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:


A. Release valve
B. Check valve
C. Gate valve
D. Pilot valve


  1. Reduce high inlet- pressure: to lower outlet pressure.
  2. Limit the flow of water to a single direc-tion.
  3. Remove air from the pipeline.
  4. Stopping the flow of water in the pipeline.

Codes: A B C D

A) 3 2 4 1

B) 4 2 1 3

C) 3 4 2 1

D) 1 2 4 3

Solution: (A)

All of these are pipe appurtenances that are required for the proper functioning of the pipeline.

test your understandings:

1. An inverted siphon is a:

(A) device for distributing septic tank effluent to a soil absorption system.
(B) device for preventing overflow from an elevated water storage tank.
(C) device for preventing crown corrosion of sewer.
(D) section of a sewer which is dropped below the hydraulic grade line in order to avoid an obstacle.

Solution : (D)

2. Consider the following valves in a water distribution system.

I. Check valve
II. Pressure-reducing valve
III. Air relief valve
IV. Scour valve
V. Sluice valve

    Which of these works automatically?

    (A) I, III, and IV
    (B) II, IV, and V
    (C) III, IV, and V
    (D) 1, 11, and III

    [ESE 2003]

    3. In a water supply system

    I. Drain valves are provided at elevated or higher points to remove accumulated air.
    II. Reflux valve allows flow in one direction only.
    III. Drain valves are provided at low points to remove silt and other deposits.

    Which of the above statements is/ are correct?

    (A) I, Il, and III
    (B) Il only
    (C) Il and Ill only
    (D) Ill only

    Solution: (C)
    [ESE 2010]

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